Ducati has launched its 214-hp desmodromic-valve Panigale V4, ending improvement of ever-larger V-twins in favor of a direct connection to all the corporate has realized in MotoGP. The 1299 Panigale pushed cylinder bore to a tremendous 116mm, straining the bounds of combustion management. In future, engineers say, 100mm would be the largest bore produced (within the type of the Panigale 959).
Bore and stroke of the V4 are “impressed” by the MotoGP restrict—81.zero x 48.5mm—dimensions chosen to forestall factories from exploring the extremes of System 1, the place at one time bore/stroke ratios closed in on 2.5:1 (which, in MotoGP cylinder measurement, would give dimensions of 92.6 x 37.0mm!). Including 5mm to the 48.5mm stroke of MotoGP offers 53.5mm, which, with the 81mm bore, delivers a displacement of 1,102.7cc or 67.3ci. The facility curves proven to me in Bologna revealed peak energy at a average 13,000 rpm, at which level the V4’s peak piston acceleration is lower than that of decade-old 600 sportbike pistons.
With the track-only Speciale model comes an all-titanium Akrapovic exhaust system that raises energy to 226 hp at a claimed dry weight of 414 kilos. That may be a weight-to-power ratio of 1.83 kilos/hp. To provide my 1966 Yamaha YL2C that ratio would have required 100 extra horsepower than it truly had.
They are saying that bears attain as excessive as they will on a tree trunk and make deep scratches with their foreclaws, giving discover to smaller bears that this territory is taken. As as soon as noticed by actor Robert Mitchum, you may’t grow to be tall by taking classes, however Ducati has pushed its claw marks far up the tree with this V-Four.
That outcomes from:
Ducati’s confirmed potential to develop dependable excessive energy
Claudio Domenicali’s insistence that each Ducati half be the results of weight discount and efficiency enchancment
Incorporation of what MotoGP can contribute to mainstream motorcycling
Sure, mainstream. For it is a manufacturing motorbike to be ridden daily, not a collector’s curiosity to be hung in static ignominy above some hedgie’s fieldstone hearth. A serious objective of V4 engine improvement was rideability. Normally, the higher the valve occasion overlap in an engine’s cam profiles, the fussier and peakier its efficiency turns into. On the peak of racing two-valve sophistication (Manx Norton, Velocette KTT, and so forth.) valve overlaps of 90 to 100 levels have been commonplace. The opposite finish of the spectrum is Harley-Davidson, whose huge twins have valve overlaps close to zero. Shut on its heels is Ducati’s Diavel energy cruiser with simply 11 levels overlap. On the different present excessive is Suzuki’s GSX-R1000, with one thing like 70 levels of overlap.
The place does Ducati’s V-Four fall on this spectrum? Twenty-six levels. Meaning good robust torque and drivability. A have a look at the precise curve exhibits peak torque maintained from 9,000 to 11,500 rpm with loads beneath. That’s drivability.
Contributing to it is a two-position, variable-length consumption system. Intuitively we count on variable-length consumption to be a type of slide trombone affair, however there’s no room and no want. If right consumption size is 7-1/2 inches at 10,000 rpm, then we’d want 15 inches at 5,000 rpm. The place would we put all that 52mm tubing? Consumption methods have already commandeered most of what was the gasoline tank.
So why have a system that varies size by simply an inch? Consumption size is chosen so it’s a optimistic stress wave that arrives on the port because the valves are closing. That may increase torque by as a lot as 10 p.c—properly price having. However what occurs at some decrease rpm, when it’s a adverse wave that arrives at valve closure? You guessed accurately: It kills torque to the tune of 10 p.c, making a weak place within the torque curve. The Ducati system dances round that weak place, avoiding the adverse wave peak by going lengthy/brief, lengthy/brief because the engine pulls throughout its vary of highest torque.
The 2 greatest turbines of torque are consumption stream (the gross quantity of cost trapped within the cylinder) and compression ratio, which determines how a lot “push” the combustion of that cost offers. A 3rd accomplice is combustion itself—its velocity, completeness, and margin of security towards detonation. The quantity for this engine is 14:1. Right here, Ducati’s lengthy improvement of ever-changing V-twin superbike engines and 15 years in MotoGP have given it a combustion mannequin that works fantastically. Whereas the Japanese firms flailed about within the late 1980s and early-to-mid-’90s making an attempt to learn to burn big-bore short-stroke combustion chambers, Ducati moved with assurance that basically impressed me.
Now for weight management: There are different machines with near 200 hp however they’re actually energy stations on wheels, 500-pounders on lengthy, slow-turning wheelbases. They’ve their place.
Weight turns into doubly vital when components rotate (clutch, crankshaft, wheels) in addition to passively transfer with the automobile. Prior to now, the engine and wheels rotated in the identical path in order that their a number of resistances to path altering added. However as a result of the V4’s engine rotates reverse to the wheels, its resistance is subtracted from theirs, making this bike a lot simpler to flick proper and left. Reverse engine rotation is now common in MotoGP. On this V-Four it’s achieved by putting an loafer gear between the crankshaft pinion and clutch gear.
The objective of the Panigale V4 was to be a usable regular motorbike of great efficiency. To make it gentle, each half needed to be thought-about. To this finish, the “chassis” is simply two separate components totaling 20 kilos. The 9-pound ahead body’s job is to help the steering head from 4 factors on the engine, such that braking and twisting forces are strongly resisted whereas giving sufficient lateral flexibility to maintain the entrance tire following pavement irregularities, even at excessive lean angles when the conventional suspension is pointed the unsuitable manner.
To attain this, the 4 legs of the ahead body needed to be symmetrical. However the place one of many legs needed to go there was nothing to which to connect it. So, in Panigale V-twin style, a three-legged bracket was bolted in place to supply the required anchorage.
The rear body is simply the 11-pound single-sided swingarm, conceptually consisting of two components. The primary is the very stiff box-section arm itself, and the opposite is its ahead part, whose job is to supply lateral flexibility simply because the ahead body does. On this case, it’s carried out as a pair of vertical “blades” becoming a member of the arm to its pivots on the again of the gearbox.
The engine itself is all the time the heaviest component, however by means of trendy casting, element design, and liberal software of magnesium, that package deal weighs 142 kilos, simply 2 kilos greater than the engine of Yamaha’s nine-time Daytona-winning TZ750 two-stroke.
These options ship MotoGP flexibility, save weight, and please the various Ducati house owners who love the single-sided swingarm.